Gender Inequality Index (GII)

The GII reflects gender-based inequalities in three dimensions – reproductive health, empowerment, and economic activity. The GII can be interpreted as the loss in human development due to inequality between female and male achievements in the three GII dimensions.

Malaysia has a GII value of 0.210, ranking it 39 out of 149 countries in the 2013 index. When compared with the average of high HDI countries and East Asia and the Pacific countries, Malaysia has performed well in the dimension of reproductive health but needs further improvements in terms of empowerment (female seats in parliament) and economic activity (labour force participation rate).

Overall, Malaysia’s GII value is above the average of high HDI countries and East Asia and the Pacific (a lower GII indicates less inequality).

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Gender Development Index (GDI)


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It is essential that Malaysia continues to prioritise inclusive growth and social cohesion, and moves forward with the second generation policies that are needed to support this.
-Frances Stewart